1. URL Filtering
This is a technique used to block access to certain websites based on the URL. The security gateway checks the URL of a site against a database of categorized URLs. Based on the organization's policies, access to certain categories of sites (like adult content, social media, etc.) might be blocked to prevent distractions, inappropriate content, or potential security risks.
2. Application Control
This feature allows the organization to control the use of applications on their network. For instance, an organization might want to limit the use of certain social media applications, peer-to-peer file sharing, or video streaming services. Application control can help increase productivity, reduce bandwidth usage, and mitigate potential security risks.
3. Data Loss Prevention
DLP is a strategy for making sure that end users do not send sensitive or critical information outside the corporate network. The data could be in motion (network traffic), at rest (data storage), or in use (endpoint actions). DLP solutions can identify, monitor, and protect data through deep content inspection, and apply policies for data transfer.
The antivirus functionality of a web security gateway can scan the incoming traffic and files for known viruses, Trojans, worms, and other types of malware. If such malicious content is detected, the security gateway can block it from entering the network to prevent any potential damage or data theft.
5. HTTPS Inspection
Also known as SSL/TLS inspection, this feature allows the security gateway to decrypt, inspect, and re-encrypt traffic that is sent over a secure HTTPS connection. This is important because a lot of malware is now delivered over HTTPS, which would normally be invisible to most security tools.
HTTPS inspection allows the gateway to identify and block such threats, even if they are hidden in encrypted traffic. It's important to note that this feature can raise privacy concerns and should be used judiciously and transparently.