It is not possible to list the thousands of security tools and technologies used by modern security organizations. However, here are some of the most common tools that are typically present in a mature security stack.
A firewall is a network security device that monitors incoming and outgoing traffic, acting as a barrier between a trusted internal network and untrusted external networks. Firewalls use predefined rules to allow or block traffic based on factors like IP addresses, ports, and protocols, preventing unauthorized access and malicious traffic from entering the network.
Intrusion Detection System (IDS) and Intrusion Prevention System (IPS)
IDS is a security technology that monitors network traffic for signs of malicious activity or policy violations. If detected, it generates alerts for security personnel to investigate. IPS, on the other hand, is an active system that not only detects but also blocks or prevents malicious traffic in real-time. Both IDS and IPS can be host-based (focusing on a single system) or network-based (monitoring the entire network).
Security Incident and Event Management (SIEM)
SIEM solutions collect, aggregate, and analyze log data from various sources, such as firewalls, IDS/IPS, servers, and applications. They help organizations detect, investigate, and respond to security incidents by providing real-time monitoring, advanced analytics, and automated response capabilities. SIEM solutions also enable compliance with regulatory requirements through centralized reporting and auditing.
Vulnerability Management is the process of identifying, evaluating, and addressing security weaknesses in an organization's IT infrastructure, software, and applications. This process involves continuous scanning, monitoring, and assessment of systems to detect possible vulnerabilities.
Once vulnerabilities are identified, organizations prioritize and remediate them through patching, configuration changes, or other security controls. The main goal of vulnerability management is to reduce the likelihood and impact of successful cyberattacks by minimizing exploitable vulnerabilities in the environment.
Attack Surface Management
Attack surface management is the practice of identifying, mapping, and reducing the potential entry points (attack vectors) an adversary could use to compromise an organization's IT systems and data. This involves understanding and securing all components of the IT environment, including hardware, software, networks, cloud services, and third-party integrations.
By minimizing the attack surface, organizations can reduce the risk of cyberattacks, lower the chances of successful breaches, and improve their overall security posture. Attack surface management includes activities such as continuous monitoring, threat modeling, secure configuration management, and proper access control implementation.
Cloud Security Posture Management (CSPM)
CSPM solutions help organizations maintain and improve their security posture in cloud environments by continuously monitoring cloud infrastructure, identifying misconfigurations, and providing recommendations for remediation. CSPM tools enable organizations to enforce security policies, assess compliance, and mitigate risks associated with cloud adoption.
Threat intelligence refers to the collection, analysis, and sharing of information about existing and emerging threats, such as threat actors, tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs), vulnerabilities, and indicators of compromise (IoCs). Threat intelligence solutions help organizations proactively identify and mitigate risks, prioritize security efforts, and improve their overall security posture.